ಮಧ್ವಾಚಾರ್ಯರೆಂದರೆ ಯಾರು ?
Sri Madhwa was born in 1238 on the Vijayadasami day at a place called Pajakashetra near Udupi. His father was Madhya-geha Bhatt and motherwas Vedavathi. The child was called Vasudeva. After his Upanyanam he studied the Vedas under a gure; and at sixteen years of age he was initiated into Sannyasa by Achutapreksha and bore the name Poornaprajna meaning completely enlightened and wrote all the thirty seven worksunder the name Ananda Theertha. The tradition holds the view that he was the messenger of Lord Narayana. As Hanuman he served Sri Rama, and as Bhima he served Sri Krishna and as Madhwa he served Sri Vedavyasa.
Sri Madhwa by his scholarship and powers of argumentation won many a dispute and routed the apponents and converted Adwaitins into his fold including his guru Achutapreksha. Sri Madhwas life and work were authentically written by Sri Narayana Pandithacharya a contemporary to SriMadhwa in a book called Sri SumadhwaVijaya.
It has been acclaimed as an authoriative work and accepted by one and all. It is a great literally composition with all the nicelties of a Mahakavya. Tradition says that daily recitation of Sri SumadhwaVijaya brings fortune, health, spiritual knowledge and bliss.
Madhwas works can be divided into different classes; ten Upanishads, two works on the Gita, four works on the BrahmaSutras, ten independent philosphical tracts, a work on Mahabharata and one on Bhagavata, and one on the daily rites. The rest seven are (Stotras) hymns in praise of God. The one Dwadasa Stotra is in twelve little chapters. They all total up thirty-seven in number.
Sri Madhwass philosophy is unique and is based on the authority of the Vedas, Puranas, Ramayana, Mahabarata and Pancaratra Agamas. The unique feature of his interpretation is he harmonises all the passages in the light of a single principle that they adore and glorify the infiniate auspicious qualities of Lord Narayana who is the supreme Reality. This is the first gem among the nine gems of his thought.
The second most important thought in Sri Madhwas philosophy is the infinite plurality of souls. He proclaims that five-fold differences are eternal. The souls are different from one another, as well as from God and the world. The world is different from the souls. The differnet aspects of matter differ among themselves. This is the celebrated Panchabheda. This differnece persists even in moksha. Even after release souls are graded in respect of their perfection. The souls are also of the nature of gunas. So they are in the nature of prakriti.
Another important doctrine is that the world according to Sri Madhwa is real. It is the creation of God It is not created by man. If man have created it why are they not perfectly happy?
He insists on bhakthi as the method to attain the Lord. It is supreme attachment to the lord based on the complete understanding of the greatness and the supremacy of the Lord which transcends all kinds of love. This kind of amala bhakthi alone secures moksha.
Born around 1238 in Pajaka village in Udupi. in Karnataka on Vijayadashami day, he was named Vasudev. His great talent was evident right from very early age of 3. Himself a good athlete, he was equally emphatic about physical training too. He taught the philosophy of Dwaita. Famous idol of Srikrishna at Udupi was installed by him. His life is full of miracles and precepts. He entered Badari Kanan in 131.7 as retirement from life and was never seen again.
He is the saint installed the idol of Sri Krishna at Udupi in Karnataka. The philosophy he preached was previously known as Tattwavada. Now it is known as Dwaita. He lived seven hundred years ago. He boldly said to a Muslim King: "By whatever name you may call, God is One". He maintained that ones religious is not decided by birth but by his nature and personality. The Acharyas knowledge, scholarship and achievements made him a great savant.
Among the galaxy of Acharyas of our country, three stand out: Acharya Shankara who preached Advaita (Monism), Acharya Ramanuja who preached Vishishtadwaita (a blend of Monism and Dualism), and Acharya Madhwa who preached Dwaita (Dualism. "This world is an illusion; only God is true," said Shankara. "God is the soul of the universe; hence this body is also real," said Ramanuja. "This universe is a playful creation of God. Let us not try to diminish it by denouncing it," said Madhwa.
In old texts, Acharya Madhwas Dwaita philosophy - is described as Tattwavada. He maintained: "This world is not an illusion. God is not a magician. He signifies the duty of truth. This world should be considered as a school to understand Gods greatness."
Author : Bananje Govindacharya
Madhwa blazes as an everlasting lighthouse of dualism
Madhwacharya was a giant of a genius, a giant of might, a giant of erudition. He founded the Vaishnava sect called Sadvaishnavism. He was born in1199 AD of brahmin parents at Pajaka near Udipi. He was seized with a burning desire for renunciation at the age of 25 and mastering Vedas and Upanishads, he traveled all over India and roused Hindus to a sense of reality of the world and stability of justice. With prophetic vision, he highlighted the wisdom of the Vedas, the transcendental Theism of the Upanishads and emotions in epics. He waged a relentless war on all forces of evil. He rehabilitated the social and political fortunes of the people that the mighty kingdom of Vijayanagar was born. He created a sense of fellowship and unity among his followers by installing an enchanting image of lord Krishna at his mutt in Udipi. He was a master in different languages including Persian.
His encyclopedic knowledge baffled all. Mysticism flashes in all his 37 works, which are called Sarvamoola grantha. He proudly proclaimed the voice of clouds, the music of the spheres, the fury of the winds, the roar of the waves in seas, the names of Gods and sages are the names of Supreme that eternally sing the glory and majesty of GOD. Rightly he is hailed as "ANANDA THIRTHA "- Brahman as Bliss infinite, the One without a Peer, Indweller in all.
His philosophy is based on the idea of distinctions and these are 5 in number- God is distinct from individual souls.
God is distinct from non- living matter
One individual soul is distinct from every other.
Individual souls are distinct from one another.
The universe is composed of independent and dependent beings. God alone is independent - Omnipotent, omnipresent and omniscient.
Matter is distinct from God and though God is its ruler, it is real and extremely existent.
Souls are born into this world in a state of bondage divided into 3 categories-
- Moral and devoted to God
- Experiencing happiness and misery life after life
- Eternally damned for reviling God and his devotees.
Today, a good lot of scholars all over the world are discussing his philosophy and are making tremendous progress. Many of them have praised Madhwa and his learned commentators for their great lead in Vedic interpretations.
To those lost in the dizzy heights of abstraction in Shankara and drowned in the emotional depths of Ramanuja , Madhwa blazes as an everlasting lighthouse of dualism illuminating darkness all around.
Hari bhakthas will be thrilled by Madhwas philosophy by just reading Sumadhwa Vijaya. Hundreds of pages may not be sufficient to explain the depth of his teachings, but this note attempts at presenting a nutshell.